Two liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals have been launched in Germany this month as part of wider plans aimed at reducing its reliance on Russian gas.
Up to six floating storage and regasification units (FSRUs) spread over four sites are currently expected to come online by the end of 2023.
The government has agreed leases on five, each capable of importing at least 5 billion cubic metres (bcm) of seaborne gas per year.
The first of these began operations at Wilhelmshaven on Nov. 15.
The FSRUs will cost twice the public funds initially estimated, but the budget has been approved.
Additionally, a privately chartered FSRU at Lubmin on the Baltic Sea was connected to onshore pipeline grids by pipeline operator Gascade on Nov. 25.
Below are details on the four sites:
The Wilhelmshaven site is being developed by Uniper UN01.DE and is due to receive two FSRUs, the second due in fourth quarter of 2023.
Local LNG activities will later be converted to handle clean hydrogen and ammonia and to accommodate electrolysis processes for green gases from renewables.
Tree Energy Solutions (TES), which also works with E.ON (EONGn.DE) at Wilhelmshaven, and utility EWE (LANDWE.UL) announced on Nov. 25 they plan a 500 MW electrolyser plant for start in 2028.
An FSRU chartered by private consortium Deutsche ReGas arrived at Lubmin on the Baltic Sea on Nov. 23.
On Nov. 25, the FSRU was connected to onshore pipeline grids by pipeline operator Gascade.
Deutsche ReGas said a recent tender for annual regasification capacity of 11.7 bcm was oversubscribed, with bids totalling 15.2 bcm.
The energy regulator has granted the project exemption from tariff and network access regulations for 20 years to increase competition.
Lubmin is also due to receive an FSRU leased by the government by the end of 2023.
The Brunsbuettel FSRU is being developed by RWE RWEG.DE and is expected to begin operations at the end of this year or early next. It is expected to be a forerunner to a fixed LNG facility.
Dutch gas network operator Gasunie, which has a 40% stake in the FSRU project, is planning two related gas pipelines.
State bank KfW (KFW.UL) and RWE are stakeholders in the fixed facility. Shell (SHEL.L) has committed to some guaranteed purchases.
The Elbe river port of Stade will receive an FSRU by the end of 2023.
Project operator Hanseatic Energy Hub (HEH) has provisionally allocated regasification capacity at a planned land-based hub that could materialise in 2026.
It is backed by gas network company Fluxys (FLUX.BR), investment firm Partners Group (PGHN.S), logistics group Buss and chemicals company Dow (DOW.N).
EnBW (EBKG.DE) has committed itself as a buyer.
A final investment decision is expected next year.